There are many factors that contribute to the high incidence of sow reproductive failure syndrome in summer, and these include mainly non-infectious factors such as nutrition, ambient temperature, exercise, boar use and toxins, and infectious agents such as pathogenicity. According to the survey, the main pathogenic factors are swine fever, parvovirus infection, pseudorabies, and Japanese encephalitis. Nutritional factors Insufficient intake of nutrients Summer is a hot, hot and humid season. Because pigs have thick subcutaneous fat and poor heat dissipation, the feed intake and activity of pigs decrease accordingly, and the intake of nutrients required for sow breeding is relatively low. Inadequate, so that the ovulation ovulation law of sows disorder, affecting the mating and pregnancy, and stillbirth and poor fetal phenomenon. Vitamin deficiency or lack of high temperature and high humidity causes the stability of the vitamin in the feed to be destroyed. In particular, the fat-soluble vitamins A and E are the most basic and effective vitamins for maintaining the normal reproductive activity of sows. Due to the destruction of the stability of vitamins, it is easy to cause lack or deficiency of vitamins in feeds, resulting in a decrease in the conception rate of sows and abnormal embryonic development. Nutritional one-sided, lack of or insufficient green feed for feed intake in summer, decreased intake of nutrients or lack of certain nutrients (such as selenium, vitamin A, and E deficiency), coupled with lack of or insufficient supply of green feed, can easily affect the breeding pig Normal reproductive activity. The semen's semen's vigor is negatively correlated with the ambient temperature. The higher the ambient temperature, the lower the semen's vigor. In summer, the temperature in some farms (households) is as high as 38Â°C to 40Â°C, and some are even higher. In the case of excessively high temperatures, the libido of the species can be easily reduced, the semen quality is thin, the amount is small, the vitality is significantly reduced, and dead sperm and weak sperm are increased. If the timing of mating the sow is not timely, the sow can easily cause insemination. This factor is the most direct factor leading to a decline in the fertility rate of sows in the summer. Insufficient exercise factors The summer weather is hot, and the amount of exercise of the breeding pigs is relatively reduced. In addition, some pig farms (households) are using the positioning bar to breed the breeding pigs, and the amount of exercise is insufficient. If the boar has too little exercise, it will lead to a decline in semen vitality, directly affect the sow's fertility rate; if the sow's lack of exercise, it will affect the normal estrus ovulation of sows, but also make the sows limb weakness. Affecting fertility. The use factors of boars In the high temperature and high humidity season in summer, the heat stress of boars is obvious. Some breeding farms (households) still use boars to collect and breed during the daytime under high temperature, and do not pay attention to reasonable use of boars. Over time, the damage to the boar is relatively large, and it is easy to cause the boar's sexual performance to decline, the semen quality is thin, the amount is small, the sperm motility is decreased, dead sperm and weak sperm are increased, thus seriously affecting the conception rate of the sow. Pathogenic factors Parvovirus disease The effect of the disease on the reproductive performance of sows depends mainly on the stage of the sow's infection with the virus, which generally results in the sows not having estrus, infertility, miscarriage, stillbirths, weak babies, mummies, and causes. The number of litters in sows is reduced. After an empty sow is infected, it can affect the normal estrus of the sow, and part of the sows will show persistent estrus. The sow's initial infection will cause the sow to have neither sympathetic symptoms nor to give birth to the litter; the sow will be pregnant early. After infection, some embryos die early and are absorbed by the mother. During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, part of the fetus will die in mid-fate. Fetal water will be absorbed by the sow, the sow's abdominal circumference will be reduced, or stillbirths, weak tires, mummies, etc. A few piglets are born poorly; general sows are infected with the disease after 70 days of pregnancy. Although sows can normally produce a portion of piglets, they are usually poisoned and become new sources of infection. Atypical swine fever causes the pig's immune system to decline, and causes reproductive production disorders in sows. If the sow is infected 10 days before pregnancy, it will cause premature embryo death or be absorbed by the sow. The sows will have regrowth or reduce the number of litters. If the sow is infected 10 to 15 days of pregnancy, it will increase the number of stillbirths; during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, Will cause stillbirth, weak fetus, postpartum growth and development of the fetus is poor; sows around the week before birth infection, although not affect the survival of piglets, but will affect the growth and development of piglets. Japanese encephalitis The disease is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes and flies, and occurs frequently in summer. After the infection of Japanese encephalitis in boars, the main manifestation is orchitis, hypogonadism and decreased semen quality. After sow infection with Japanese encephalitis, except that the sows are prone to acute abortion, the antibodies in the blood of the sows are high. It is manifested as difficult breeding, miscarriage, stillbirth, etc. After sows are infected with Japanese Encephalitis, they produce stillbirths and mummies. The mortality rate of newborn pigs exceeds 40%, and that of sows is about 20%. Leptospirosis This disease can cause fetal death, miscarriage, and decreased piglet survival in pregnant sows. The incubation period of the disease is 1 week to 2 weeks. Sows are infected during the first month of pregnancy and the fetus is generally not affected. The second month of infection causes fetal death, abortion, and mummification; the third month Infection results in miscarriage, low birth rate, and reduced piglet survival. The disease of Chlamydia psittaci is generally endemic. The excretions and secretions of sick pigs and potentially infected pigs suffering from the disease can be infected with the virus. The disease can harm pigs of all ages, but it is most sensitive to pregnant sows. Pathogens can penetrate into the womb through the placental barrier. Causes fetal death. In general, primiparous sows and young sows not only have significant onset symptoms, but also have a relatively high incidence. However, the general sows do not have obvious symptoms, and only produce stillbirths. Brucellosis The disease is susceptible to infection in both adult boars and adult sows, resulting in acute or chronic orchitis and paragastitis in boars; resulting in miscarriage of sows, producing stillbirths and weak fetuses. Blue-ear disease (porcine reproductive-breathing-difficulty syndrome) The disease is susceptible to infection in pregnant sows and piglets within one month of age. Sows exhibit weight loss, anorexia, abdomen, blue breasts, miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth and poor birth. Pseudorabies in general piglets infected with the disease, died of encephalomyelitis and sepsis after infection; adult pigs showed latent infection without obvious symptoms; pregnant sows suffered miscarriage, stillbirths, mummies and weak piglets, and died within a few days after birth . The virus is spread mainly through nasal secretions and can also be transmitted through vaginal secretions and placenta. Eperythrozoonosis in swine The pigs of all ages in the disease can be infected. Sow infection can cause anemia, weight loss, diarrhea, miscarriage, stillbirth, and reduced conception rate. Toxoplasmosis This disease can lead to miscarriage of pregnant sows, resulting in stillbirths, weak births, and acute postmortem death of piglets. The reproductive tract infection of sows is mainly due to poor sanitary conditions, excessive source of pollution or excessively large numbers of sows born in sows, and difficulties in sows production. Inadequate remedies or improper handling may cause damage to the genital tract of the sow, resulting in secondary infection of the uterus. Inflammation, endometritis, vaginitis, and other reproductive tract diseases cause sows not to be estrus and estrus is not normal. Repeated infertility or pregnancy caused sows to abortion. In addition, the lack of certain bacteria, chlamydia, parasites, mycotoxins, toxic gases and mineral elements such as calcium, phosphorus, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, selenium, chromium, and vitamin E, as well as improper feeding and management, also cause sows. Causes of reproductive failure syndrome. The use of some drugs, moldy feed toxins, etc. can also lead to sow reproductive failure syndrome.
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