Farmers tend to raise chickens and often have a lot of brooding. However, few chickens are left. The high mortality rate of chickens is a major problem that has plagued rural chicken farmers. The reasons for the low survival rate The authors after investigation and analysis believe that the main reasons leading to the low survival rate of chicken farmers are as follows: The temperature during the brooding period is irrational. It is difficult for the farmer to keep a proper brooding temperature. The temperature is too high, the body heat and water dispersal of the chicks are affected, the appetite is reduced, the respiratory tract diseases are easy to develop, the growth and development are slow, and the mortality rate is high. When the temperature is too low, the chicks cannot maintain body temperature balance and crowd each other, resulting in breathing difficulties in some chicks. even death. The feeding density is not suitable. Because the density is too large, the number of feeding troughs and drinking fountains is small, combined with improper placement, or the environment is mutated and there are foreign body stimuli, often causing the flock to squeeze each other. The appropriate density of farm chickens (the number of chickens per square meter) is: 30 to 40 chicks per week of 1 to 2 weeks old, which can be reduced by about 5 per week; it is reduced to 10 to 15 by 7 to 8 weeks of age. only. At the same time, it should also be based on the variety, size, strength and weakness of chickens, to conduct group feeding, so as not to squeeze each other. Disease prevention is not timely and not in place. Many farmer chickens do not pay much attention to the disinfection of warm equipment, feed chutes, etc., and do not promptly immunize chickens against Newcastle disease and strengthen immunity. Inoculations such as the Bursa vaccine and fowlpox vaccine are not timely. Broiler's ferret and coccidiosis are two major diseases in the brooding stage. Farmers often cannot grasp the prevention time and methods well. They wait until the symptoms of the diseased chickens take measures and cause high mortality. The type of feed is monotonous and nutrition is not comprehensive. Farmers raise chickens, generally using self-produced corn, soy or leftovers, green vegetables and other single feed chickens, lacking animal protein, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and other nutrients, can not meet the nutritional needs of chicks. Do not pay attention to environmental sanitation. The litter on the floor or surface of the coop is not replaced or cleaned for a long period of time. The temperature in the house is high, the humidity is high, and chicken manure is piled up, creating conditions for the spread of infectious diseases and parasitic diseases, increasing the chance of occurrence and spread. Do not pay attention to the ventilation of the house. The air in the brooding room should be kept fresh. Due to the strong metabolism of the chicks, the chickens emit a large amount of carbon dioxide. If the concentration reaches 5.8%, the chickens will have abnormalities; when the concentration increases to 15.2%, they will appear lethargic. In addition, the feces excreted by chickens evaporate a large amount of ammonia, which is too high and can cause diseases. Defensive measures Strengthen the management brooding temperature during the brooding period. Newly hatched chicks have a slightly lower body temperature than chickens, and their ability to regulate them is extremely weak. Therefore, the temperature of the brood must be mastered. When a young bird is introduced, the room temperature should not be lower than 32Â°C for the first 2 weeks, and then 2Â°C should be reduced every week until 22Â°C. Heating is gradually stopped, but this is only in the approximate range. In actual production, carefully observe the condition of the flock and adjust the appropriate temperature. Brooding humidity. When the brooding house is in high temperature and low humidity, the water loss in the chicken body increases, the yolk in the abdomen absorbs poorly, the feathers are short and brittle, the toes dry up, and they are susceptible to respiratory diseases; when the temperature is low and high humidity, the house is damp and cold, and the chicks are prone to colds and gastrointestinal diseases. . Relative humidity should generally be maintained at 60%-80%. Drinking and eating. Don't feed immediately after the chicks go into the house. Drink warm water first. In the first 15 hours, drinking 8% of sugar water can reduce the early death of chicks. It is best to add vitamins, electrolytes and antibiotics in drinking water. Drinking water 2-3 hours after the start of food, the beginning of the feed should be sprinkled on plastic or thick paper, a week later to feed the feed tank. Light intensity and time. The light management of the chicks should use 24 hours of continuous light for the first two days, and the intensity should be 10 lux, so that the chicks can become familiar with the environment as soon as possible, prompting them to eat as early as possible. In the future, it will be reduced by 1-2 hours per week and the intensity will be 5 lux until natural light. Do not extend the lighting time during brooding. Nutrition and daily management Nutrition and daily management are the basis for successful brooding. Rural farmers need to formulate chicks' full-priced feeds according to their nutritional needs and local feed sources and types. The chicks grow fast and have poor digestion. Therefore, to ensure high-quality full-price compound feed, the broiler must have a strong sense of responsibility, be able to work hard, adjust the feed at the right time, and meet the needs of the chick's growth and development. Keep chicken coops and the environment clean and hygienic. Adjust the humidity and ventilation, observe the growth and development status of the chicken, maintain the appropriate density, and do strong and weak grouping. To ensure sufficient supply of drinking water, little attention should be paid to the feeding process to increase the intake of the chicks, so that the weight of the chicks at 42 days of age must reach the standard, so that higher performance indicators can be obtained later. Doing a good job of disease prevention and epidemic prevention Disinfecting the disease and preventing the environment is a guarantee for ensuring the success of brooding. The chicken-raising households should formulate practical immunization procedures according to their specific conditions and implement them strictly. To use a good vaccine, and pay attention to the correct preservation and use, vaccination must be serious. Do a good job of disinfection. In addition to establishing and improving routine disinfection facilities, it is also necessary to adhere to chicken spray disinfection and sterilize the chicken once every 2-3 days. We must do a good job in the health of chicken coops, eliminate house waste and litter in time, keep chicken coops dry, and regularly disinfect chicken houses and utensils, and then give drug prevention, which can effectively control the spread of diseases.
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