Tong Kok Fish, a tropical and subtropical fish, is widely distributed throughout southern China. It is both a nutrient-rich consumer product and a tonic with medicinal properties. It can sell well both domestically and foreignally. Therefore, the market has great potential and is an effective breeding target for farmers (fishers) to become rich. To this end, the artificial breeding and breeding techniques of Tongjiao fish are described below.
First, the shape and habits of Tong Kok Fish Tong Kok fish, the scientific name of the beard Eel, also called the Tang Squid, in the classification is a scorpion-shaped, beard Amaranthidae. Body length is generally more than 20 cm, weight 150 to 250 grams, the most about 500 grams. Tong Kok Fish is a wild fish that inhabits the lower reaches of rivers, fields, pits, and ditches. Sexual gregarious, bulimia, feeding mainly on animal feed, such as insects, small fish, shrimp, shellfish and so on. Mostly at night activities and feeding, during the day they dive into the bottom or cave. After artificial rearing, they can also feed during the day and eat some of the vegetable concentrates. Tongjiao fish have strong adaptability, can grow in small water bodies and low dissolved oxygen environment, and have fewer diseases, a wide source of feed, easy to breed, low cost, and suitable for the promotion of small water surface culture in farmyards.
Second, the broodstock pond fish bred farm fish breeding pond corner fish best self-breeding, self-breeding, self-support. The cultivation of broodstock is the top priority for successful breeding.
1. Pond conditions.
The broodstock area is generally 35-350 square meters, and the water depth is 1.0-1.5 meters. The bottom of the pond does not have to be covered with cement, but it must be inclined to the drainage area so that the pool water can be discharged completely when clearing the pond. Several culverts can be made in the pool corner or pool wall, or soil pipes or plastic hoses can be submerged in the pool to facilitate drainage capture. The pond is planted with half a dozen water lotuses, duckweeds, etc. to prevent the water temperature in summer from being too high and the water to maintain proper darkness.
2. broodstock selection.
Tongjiao fish females are generally mature for 1 year, males 1.5 years. Therefore, we should choose 1.5 to 2.0 years old, large size, robust, weighing about 200 grams, without injury, disease-free broodstock. The best conditions for male and female breeding separately, placed in the pro-fish pond feeding 3 to 4 months before spawning.
3. Stocking and management.
The broodstock stocking density is generally around 50 or so square meters. Feeding of small trash fish, chickens, ducks, fish and other animal organs, as well as rice bran, wheat bran, bean cake, peanut cake and so on. After minced animal feed, mixed vegetable feed and Vitas E, mineral trace elements, etc. are kneaded and fed in groups. Daily feeding varies depending on the water quality and climate. It is generally 3% to 5% of the body weight of the fish, but it must be reduced or stopped when the water quality deteriorates or the water temperature decreases.
Third, artificial propagation of pond fish
1. Male and female identification.
During the breeding season, the female abdomen is broad, inflated, and soft. The genital hole is round, red and slightly swollen. The anus is not recessed. The male is smaller in size, less mucous and slightly rough, the lower abdomen is flat, and the reproductive hole is narrow and slightly longer. The anus is recessed and there is a slight amount of white semen coming out of the abdomen. Pond angle fish breeding season is generally from April to September, artificial breeding season is appropriate from May to June.
2. Fertility production.
Select mature broodstock, with a male to female ratio of 1:1 to 2, into the spawning tank. Spawning pond specifications can be 0.6 meters and 0.6 meters, water depth 0.3 to 0.4 meters, the pool put some washed and disinfected daffodils or brown skin and the like for the fish nest, so that broodstock natural spawning fertilization. The oxytocin is generally administered with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or salmon pituitary (PG) at a dose of: female HCG 1300-1500 IU/0.5 kg or PG4-6/0.5 kg; the male dose is female. 1/2. Injection method: 5 ml of physiological saline and 0.5 ml of each tail; females were injected twice, each injection was 1/3 of the total dose, and the rest of the entire dose was injected 6 to 8 hours apart. The male fish was injected once only with the second injection of the female fish; the part was placed intramuscularly under the dorsal fin of the body, and the broodstock could be wrapped in wet gauze for operation. Effect time from about the first needle from about 18 to 28 hours can be spawned and fertilized, the fertilized egg was green-yellow microstrip red dot, round beaded, egg diameter 1.7 to 1.8 mm, line sticky hatch.
3. Artificial insemination.
After oxytocin injection, the water temperature is 26°C to 29°C, and artificial insemination is usually feasible within 18 to 24 hours after the injection of the first needle. In the effect time, several brood fishes must be inspected. The left hand wraps the female with wet gauze. The left hand is pressed gently by the abdomen along the anus. The mature hatching is smooth, and the overripe or immature eggs are cloudy white. Lack of elasticity, and is not easy to squeeze out; normal eggs are auburn or dark brown, with luster and elasticity. After the inspection, it was found that the time was ripe to pick eggs. The ovulation pots were wiped dry with cotton cloth. The females also dried their bodies and squeezed them into the pots. At the same time, the male fish was wiped dry to extrude the semen in the potted eggs, and the water was added 2-3 times more than the amount of eggs immediately after mixing with the feathers, and the shaking was continued. After a little pause, quietly pour the water out of the basin and add fresh water. This way, wash eggs repeatedly 5-6 times. Insemination is completed and can be transferred to the Incubator for hatching.
4. Incubation.
The hatchery tool can use a small cement tank of 5 to 10 square meters, a bank of 1 meter, a depth of 0.6 meters, and a hatching box net in the water. The box net is made of 10 centimeters high planks to make a rectangular wooden frame 1 meter long and 0.7 meters wide. The 32-mesh salon net is installed inside, and the frame net is semi-floating and sinking in the pool water, so that the fertilized eggs are evenly distributed in the frame net, and the density is not suitable for overlapping. Each cement pool can be placed with 3 to 4 hatching box nets. And keep the water in a semi-flowing state.
Water temperature 25 °C ~ 29 °C, fertilized eggs can be hatched by 30 to 32 hours larvae. The newly hatched larvae have a large umbilical cord, a body length of about 4.6 mm and a umbilical cord width of about 1.8 mm. They can't swim on the box and swing only on their tails. Within 3 days, nutrition was provided by the umbilicus pouch, and on the fourth day, the umbilical cord began to disappear, and exercise increased and started feeding. During the incubation period, pool water should be maintained and strictly filtered to meet the requirements of dissolved oxygen and avoid entry of predator organisms. If underground well water is used as the source of water, it must be injected into the reservoir to increase the dissolved oxygen before use. In case of bad weather or when the water temperature changes day and night, there must be a windproof shed around the hatchery. In order to prevent waterborne bacteria, 0.2PPM of malachite green may be splashed in the whole pool or disinfected with 1 to 2PPM of methyl salt.
Four, pond angle fish seed cultivation
1. Pond condition The seedling pool is generally an earthen pond of 20 to 100 square meters. The pool is surrounded with a salon net or a plastic plate to prevent enemy invasion. The bottom of the pond is inclined toward the outlet so that it can be completely drained during harvesting. Before the seedlings are released, the bottom of the tank must be dried and then flooded with fresh water. The water depth is 20-30 cm. A small plastic tube with a length of about 15 cm is placed on the bottom of the tank to allow it to hide and rest. The water pool does not grow beyond 1/2 of the total area. Floating lotus, duckweed and so on.
2. Fish fry The fry in hatchery box nets can be fed into seed ponds after the fourth day of feeding. Stocking density is 800-1000/m2. The early fish fry bait rotifers, leeches and other best.
3. Feeding In order to satisfy the initial fry of the fry, 15 days before fry stocking, another pool can be selected to cultivate blisters. The method is: drain the pool water, expose it to sunlight, and then put in lime water and manure, and put the water into it. The water depth is about 60 cm. About 2 weeks can allow the genus to multiply. When the fry begins to feed in the pool, it can be fed for 1 to 2 days. You can use hand-pick nets to collect leeches and other plankton in the broth to feed the fry. On the 8th day, silkworms and chopped shrimps and shellfish can be added. After 30 days, pig blood, mixed fish sauce, chopped animal internal organs and rice bran, wheat bran, soybean meal and other vegetable feeds can be fed. On the 40th day, a body length of 3 to 5 cm can be sold as fingerlings or transferred to adult fish ponds.
V. Fish culture of Tongjiao fish
1. The construction of ponds can choose to build fishponds in the backyard of the farmhouse. In order to prevent pond horn fish from drilling holes in the pond, the pool wall should be cement or brick. If the earth pond is used, the pool wall should be thickened and strong, and the bottom of the pond should be filled with gravel or clay soil. The pond area is generally 80 to 1,600 square meters, the pond embankment is 1.5 meters, the depth of the pond is 0.6 to 0.8 meters, the bottom of the pond is inclined to the drainage outlet, and the pond wall is made of several caves. The diameter of the pond is 13 centimeters in diameter and 5 meters in length. Pipes (cement or plastic) to facilitate the hiding and fishing of fish. Duckweed and other plants that grow no more than 1/2 of the total area in pond water.
2. The stocking period is generally 3 to 8 months each year. The stocking density is 3 to 5 cm. The fish species is 80 to 100 tails per square meter. The amount of sufficient feed and running water can be increased to 100 to 200 tails per square meter. .
3. Feeding pond angle fish omnivorous feeding, can feed animal feed, can also be fed plant feed. In order to adapt to the feeding habits of pond croakers, feeding time should be preferred in the early morning and evening, or once in the evening. Feeding capacity is appropriately increased or decreased according to climate, water quality, and feeding intensity. Generally, the daily amount is 3% to 5% of the total weight of the fish.
4. Disease prevention fish pond disease is less common, the main print and mildew mildew. In the former, round spots of oval shape are formed on the fish body, as in the case of printing; the latter is covered with white hairs at the diseased site, and yellow mud is adhered to the hair. Treatment: Print disease can be used 1ppm bleach Quanchiposa; skin mold can be used 0.08% salt water Quanchiposa. At the same time, we must prevent the invasion of water snakes, frogs, rodents, and ferocious fish.
5. Fishing and transportation Tongjiao fishes grow faster and can be raised for up to 120 grams in 3 to 4 months. After catching, the fish is placed in a small cement or brick pool for 1 or 2 days to drain the intestinal food and remove the mud taste before being shipped to the market. If transported over long distances, the fish should be loaded into an oxygen-filled nylon bag.

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