At present, the effective utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizers in China is generally very low. How to reduce nitrogen losses and increase nitrogen fertilizer utilization are common concerns of farmers. Here will improve the effective utilization of nitrogen fertilizer seven methods introduced to the majority of farmers friends:?
First, implement mixed application, deep application, and strengthen water management
A large number of field trials have shown that compared with nitrogen fertilizer application, applying nitrogen fertilizer to the soil layer or applying a depth of a few centimeters below the soil surface can reduce nitrogen loss. The nitrogen fertilizer is made into a granular fertilizer with a size of a few millimeters or about 1 cm to perform deep application, and the effect is better. Rice field trials have shown that deep application of granular fertilizer can achieve the same level of yield as the application of powdered fertilizer, while the amount of nitrogen fertilizer can be reduced by about 1/3. However, in areas with high rainfall, light soil texture, and potential leaching losses, deep plowing should be used with caution. Both mixed application and deep application have the effect of reducing the loss of ammonia volatilization and denitrification. Appropriate water management can also achieve the purpose of increasing nitrogen fertilizer yield. For example, the application of basal fertilizer on paddy fields is mostly mixed with a water layer. The effect of this mixed application is very poor. Most of the nitrogen is still left in the surface water, and the nitrogen mixed in the soil is only a small part. When water-free layer is used, water can be mixed with nitrogen fertilizer and more nitrogen can be mixed into soil to reduce nitrogen loss. In addition, after the application of nitrogen fertilizer irrigation water, let the water into the soil into the fertilizer, this method of nitrogen with water is also one of the measures to reduce nitrogen loss.
Second, the use of slow-effect (long-term) fertilizer
The slow-acting fertilizer is coated with a layer of film on the surface of the granular nitrogen fertilizer to gradually release the soluble nitrogen for absorption and utilization of the crop and reduce nitrogen loss and biological fixation. Application of slow-acting fertilizers can reduce nitrogen loss to a certain extent, but due to its high price, the object of application is mainly cash crops.
Third, choose the best fertilization period
According to the characteristics of crop nitrogen requirements selected fertilization period, in order to make the crop high-yield, otherwise it will make the cereal crop straw high nitrogen content, high emptying rate, grain yield is not high. For crops with longer growing seasons, in addition to applying base fertilizers, nitrogen fertilizers should be applied one to several times depending on the characteristics of the crop's nitrogen requirements to meet the needs of crops and achieve high yields.
Fourth, due to the application of soil texture
Soil texture and organic matter content have an effect on nitrogen fertilizer application. It is generally believed that sandy soil organic mineralization is fast, poor fertility, and should be applied less frequently; while the clay mineralization of organic matter is slow, the applied nitrogen fertilizer is easily fixed by soil colloids and microorganisms, and has strong fertilizer retention performance. , It can be a small amount of large; while the loam soil fertilization and fertilizer retention performance is excellent, according to the growth of plants determine the fertilization method.
Fifth, due to the application of crop species
Different plants have different requirements and types of nitrogen fertilizers. Such as leafy vegetables, tea, mulberry, etc. to harvest the leaves of plants need large amounts of nitrogen, with ammonium nitrogen is appropriate; bark, fiber plants such as hemp, Eucommia, Astragalus, etc. with ammonium chloride is appropriate; flowers, Nitrate-nitrogen fertilizer is more suitable for fruit trees, and the nitrogen requirement for different plants at different stages is also different. In the first year, the nitrogen requirement in spring and summer is more than 52%, and the fruit demand is reduced during fruit expansion. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied early in time, especially in the fruit ripening period, do not apply nitrogen fertilizer to prevent late maturation.
Use urease inhibitors
The use of urease inhibitors inhibits the hydrolysis of urea by urease, which allows urea to diffuse into deeper soil layers, thereby reducing the total ammonium and ammonia nitrogen concentrations in the surface soil of paddy fields or paddy fields to reduce ammonia volatilization. loss. The most studied urease inhibitors are O-phenyl phosphonium diamine, N-butyl thiophosphoric triamide and hydroquinone.
Seven, using nitrification inhibitors
The role of nitrification inhibitors is to inhibit nitrifying bacteria from converting ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen, thereby reducing nitrate leaching losses due to denitrification of nitrogen.
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